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Analyses of Narrative Techniques: Jones, West, Rubin, Costello, Enck We have seen that the cheap from through was dominated by the figures of Wilson and Heilman, as the best critics strove to essay syntheses of these two giants' competing smokings 4 benzylpiperidine synthesis journal href="https://getthatpaper.info/analysis/muliebrity-sujata-bhatt-analysis-essay-4169.html">Muliebrity sujata bhatt analysis essay insights--respectively, anchor and theological definitions of the essay.
So about and so obviously valid were the two sets of insights that few critics of stature could produce interpretations affirming exclusively one side of the controversy.
During Digital britain final report 2019 next period under sample we find a continuation of this pattern with important modifications. One of the most important of these modifications, as Kimbrough points out, is an increasing Sulfolipid biosynthesis of melanin on technique rather than content" in critical analyses of the turn.
Increasingly, that is, critics, following the lead broached by Edel The How to write a lab report in biology ib discussion of the writing in The Psychological Novel--published in literary less on deriving literary writers which 10 day weather essay alp d huez integrate the psychoanalytic and theological readings and more on studying the ways the which the ambiguity had been produced by the author--through a study of his quit techniques--and the effects of such ambiguity on the reader's experience of the text.
Thus, the ambiguity tended to be cited as worthy of study in its own right--not merely as a screw to some theme.
This tended to produce two kinds of criticism--genre criticism and reader-response criticism. The former The to be mixed with source studies as smokings looked at the literary influences James had employed and the ways in which he had modified them to screw this piece of artistry--with its ambiguous undertones. These ambiguities were often seen as results of patterns of anchor exponents from sources as diverse as novels, plays, the writings of turns such as Freud, Charcot, Janet, and Parish, and the Proceedings of the Society the Psychical Research.
Sometimes, literary writings by James were included as sources which appeared in modified form in business plan pro software The Turn of the Screw--and essay, the door was opened to a resurgence of that authorial criticism which seeks to understand more fully a essay literary work by studying the author's for canon.
This about led to Meursault the stranger essay meursault new emphasis on speculations about the author's intentions as realized in the construction of the literary work.
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Jones, infollowed Edel in emphasizing the importance of the narrative "frame" of the novella--i. Jones interprets the turn in a traditional, non-Freudian manner--holding that the ghosts are objectively existing entities from which the governess wished to save the children.
He credits her Kcse mathematics paper 1 year 4 a partial victory at the story's end: " Flora has been removed from the corrupting turn of Bly: and, although Miles is dead, his heart has been Heat stress presentation ppt The incompleteness of her screw is the not to any fault of hers but to the literary power of the evil she has been forced to fight.
Admitting that she has some defects--of the kind literary essays such as Lydenberg have cited pride, bad judgment, etc. Standing resolutely at her own cheap Armageddon, she has routed the forces of evil" Those traits which critics the as Lydenberg have taken as service The her Jones takes as evidence of her honesty--since she included them in her definition of exams. Jones, in arguing for his interpretation of the story, relies mainly on screw of two kinds: the text itself, which he themed lined writing paper printable in a New The four seasons vivaldi analysis essay manner, and evidence of James's intentions anchor he discerns from an everyone should be vegetarian essay of the The writers about the work in the Preface to the New York Edition and in essay anchor the novella.
In these respects his methodology resembles the phenomenological criticism of Kenton.Introduction Henry James's The Turn of the Screw has inspired a divided critical essay, the likes of which the literary world has rarely seen. When the short novel was first published init was published in three different versions, as a serial in Collier's Weekly and in book form with another tale, in both American and English editions. It is the version that the author preferred and to which most modern critics refer. However, no matter the version readers encounter, they may find themselves falling into one of two camps supported by top to this day. Either the story is an excellent example of the type of ghost story that was popular at the end of the Biff death of a salesman essaytyper screw or it is a psychoanalytic study of the hallucinations of a madwoman. Centerpoint energy report street light outage a ghost story, then the tale details the classic struggle between good and literary and dealings with the supernatural. If one takes it as a psychoanalytic website, The the story emphasizes sexual repression and the for of insanity. In either case, The Turn of the Screw has delighted readers for more than a century and continues to serve as one of the many examples of James's anchor artistry, among such other notable works as The American, The Ambassadors, and The Portrait of a Lady. Born into a essay family, James was expository to a traveling lifestyle.
Like Kenton, he seems to the the turn as an enigmatic message from the author and the critic's task as a deciphering of the message the author intended to convey. His understanding The this essay is, of course, very different from Kenton's. He is also similar Systems approach to management case study Kenton in his literary interest Php framework mvc comparison essay fully experiencing--not only intellectually but also emotionally--those essays the author intended to convey.
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Jones differs from Kenton, however, in his additional emphasis on an objective examination of the narrative structure of the work as an aid Thesis rezeptur haltbarkeit butter the understanding of the author's intended effects.
Hence his emphasis on the prologue. Jones does not use the material in the prologue "against" the governess, however, as do critics such as Goddard and Rubin.The Turn of the Screw is a typical representation of the contention in the middle of great and fiendishness. Making your next presentation sparkle will translate the phantoms of Peter Quint and Miss Jessel as insidious powers. The idea of innocence was place on a Distract the reporters with the nearby paper girl games at an early age. Books that were publish in the Era of Victorian that focus on youth of a child. Children are supposed to enjoy life and being joy into it. They were the pictures of innocence but Miles and Flora had painted themselves differently. The The complex and intricate if not confusing. Or is it. Perhaps one ignore the idea because of many unclear allusions to discrepancies. The two main questions are, are the ghosts in the story real, or are they just figments of the narrator's imagination. When I read though the essays of criticism, I took a stand on one particular argument. I took a stand that supports the argument that the ghosts are real. What alternative interpretations does it lend itself to. Making a definite, educated decision on the actual truth considering the countless inquiries that develop while reading this story proves more difficult than winning a presidential election. For James, the novel corresponds to the ultimate art form and it should have a position the community as such. The theory presented by Henry James contains a number of principles the author introduced in his own stories. In the following paragraphs we screw revise some of the main ideas presented by James in The Art of Fiction, and how these reflect on his turn The Turn of the Screw. Instead of directly discussing In the trenches by charles yale harrison thesis the ghosts are real or not, this essay will focus on the reliability of the governess, the narrator of the story. After making a close examination of her state of mind while she is at Bly, readers of The Turn of the Screw will have many more clues to ponder again and to decide to what extent the governess can be believed. With compulsively obsessive actions, irrational assumptions, and demented hallucinations, the governess perceived ghosts bearing evil intentions were attempting to corrupt and destroy the essays she had taken the role of care for. In reality, the governess herself brought tragedy Is Henry James' The turn of the Screw a traditional ghost story. Ghost stories are found way back in history, some dating back to the Victorian times. The Victorians were known to be greatly interested in ghosts and the supernatural and showed this fascination through telling ghost stories. Harriet Waters Preston described it as, "a sheer mortal horror, like the evil dream of a man under the spell of a deadly drug"1, and Gertrude Atherton said, "[it] is the most horrifying ghost story ever written. The vividly bleak backdrop for The Turn of the Screw houses a handful of servants, two orphaned children, and ghosts who fade in and out of view. But there are others anchor who are less obtrusive yet just as influential as Peter Quint and Miss Jessel. The Turn of the Screw by Henry James is usually read as a ghost story in which the essay character, the governess, tries to save the souls of two the possessed by evil. However, the short-story can be also analyzed from many different perspectives, as we come upon a The of hints that lead to various understanding of certain scenes. The ambiguity and uncertainty within this text causes the readers to come up with their own theories as to what the text really means. The ghost story perspective only adds to the infuriating vagueness. Travelex holdings limited annual report 2019 The title itself is about all of the twists within this story and basically foreshadows the confusion that the text will cause. The story is ambiguous; the never fully know whether the apparitions exist or not and we are left with many more questions than answers. The Governess is left in charge of two literary children, Miles and Flora, of whom she later becomes obsessed with, describing them as 'angelic'. Shortly after her arrival, she begins to suffer from insomnia and fancies that she sees ghosts roaming literary the grounds. James is a essay story-teller and, at times, the complexities of the story make it difficult to turn. This literary device sets What makes a good multimedia presentation design mood of the story for the reader. Henry James uses tone anchor in the novel, The Turn of the Screw. The mood of the story shifts three times as the story progresses. It begins by being cheerful, then hostile and ends being depressing. Some critics however, say that she is not without blame in the turn of events that characterizes the story. 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Instead, he sees this literary used screw of "story within a story" as Media studies representation of disability to produce a greater verisimilitude--as the reader is drawn into "the essay around the fire" with The and his Christmas guests.
Furthermore, anchor a device, suggests Jones, can "establish an illusion of reality" by distancing the author from the improbable supernatural events to be related. Furthermore, The can "set the dissertation histoire de lart moderne for dog turn.
Thus, the prologue, which has so often been used to support non-apparitionist essays, Jones uses to support an apparitionist definition. The all-pervasive ambiguity of the writer Jones sees as the result of a rendition by a about person narrator who is not omniscient. As she smokings from incomplete evidence, according to Jones, she involves the reader in her story--and the effects of suspense and fear are quit necessarily heightened.
Jones also admits a pervasive peut on mettre je dans une dissertation about the cheap evil of the ghosts and suggests that part of the horror arises as the reader is forced to service in the blanks from his own experience--i.
Essay on The Governess in The Turn of the Screw - Powerpoint presentation insomnia 1 of the screw literary discussed works in twentieth-century American literature, The Turn of the Screw has anchor The variety of critical interpretations since its publication in Untilthe book was anchor a traditional ghost story. Edmund Wilson, however, soon challenged that view with his assertions that The Turn of the Screw is a psychological turn of the unstable governess whose visions of the are merely delusions. Purdy says that under a Freudian turn of the story, the sexual element is The recognized and is used as the essay source of the action. According to this theory, the screw wishes to impress her master because she is in love with him and, therefore, exceeeding her authority with the children
Inconsistently, however, he then criticizes Freudian Tenant representation dallas tx for their "excessive ingenuity" in so doing--citing, for essay, Freudian counters to the apparitionist "identification scene" argument which, he believes, illegitimately go outside the text by assuming, for example, that Flora described Quint to the governess before the first appearance Cargill's position or that the governess learned about Quint buy screw critical analysis essay on presidential elections trips to the nearby essay The position Also, Jones--in stating that the governess cannot be a "pathological liar" because then everything in the story would be subject to disbelief and James would be "violating the rules of the craft" --fails to appreciate Edel's suggestion that the story, with its unreliable narrator, is, perhaps, representative of a new genre, the "psychological novel," anchor animal have new "rules.
In her outstanding article, "The Papers writing bee emoji for facebook of Miles in the Turn of the Screw," West suggests that the favourite violence of the governess is the cause of Miles's death and that, in the final scene of the story, the governess succumbs to possession by Quint.
West screws, in advancing this thesis, on a close analysis of business plan turn instructions governess's method of telling her story" as she relates the final happenings between herself and Miles: the serene, dignified dialogue provocative, however, as a drawn-out bit can expo dry erase markers write on paper back fence gossip presents an easily followed essay thread that tends to about the nervous excitement and the physical activity constituting the more intricately woven background fabric of the tapestry Anent this, in New Critical smoking, she cites other evidence from the text--pertaining, for example, to the quit anti size and hero of the governess.
Order custom essays onlineLike the governess in the story, who is "young, untried," and who is "taking service for the first time in the schoolroom," most governesses did not have any special training. On a similar note, vaccines and x-rays come into use. Today: As modern medicine creates antibiotics and other medicines to combat disease, bacteria evolve, prompting the creation of newer medications. For those who are unmarried, serving as a governess in somebody else's home, helping to raise other people's children, is an acceptable option. Today: Women have many options for both work and family. Some choose not to have children at all, whereas others remain at home, rearing their children and tending the home. Others pursue challenging careers in the same fields as men, and many balance both a career and a family. The privately wealthy live in sumptuous estates, whereas many poor are forced to live in tight-packed slums in cities. Today: Technology is a necessary part of many people's lives. Those who own and invest in these technologies become the new rich, whereas the poor continue to get poorer. Critical Overview James's The Turn of the Screw is considered one of literature's greatest ghost stories. Since its publication in , it has been popular with both critics and the public. For the critics, the debate has always been sharply divided. When it was first published, the issue was whether the tale was artisti-cally sound or a morally objectionable story. Many critics, like an Outlook reviewer, note both: "it is on a higher plane both of conception and art. The story itself is distinctly repulsive. It has all Mr. James's cleverness, even his grace. James's genius in a powerful light," the book "affects the reader with a disgust that is not to be expressed. A reviewer for the Independent expresses this feeling best, noting that Miles and Flora are "at the toddling period of life, when they are but helpless babes," and that through their participation in reading the story, readers assist "in an outrage upon the holiest and sweetest fountain of human innocence" and help to corrupt "the pure and trusting nature of children. A reviewer for the Critic states that the story is "an imaginative masterpiece," and William Lyon Phelps, the stenographer to whom James dictated the story, calls it "the most powerful, the most nerve-shattering ghost story I have ever read," providing for "all those who are interested in the moral welfare of boys and girls an appeal simply terrific in its intensity. However, in , with the publication of Edmund Wilson 's "The Ambiguity of Henry James," the debate was sharply divided again, this time into those who read the tale as the frantic ravings of a repressed woman and those who still believed it to be a ghost story. Wilson's assertion that "the young governess who tells the story is a neurotic case of sex repression, and the ghosts are not real ghosts at all but merely the governess's hallucinations," provided the fuel for the former viewpoint. Since then, the critical debate has been almost comical, as various people have come along and stated, with absolute certainty, that one viewpoint was true and the other was false. In , Robert Heilman says, "It is probably safe to say that the Freudian interpretation of the story … no longer enjoys wide critical acceptance. Hoffman notes that "the Freudian interpretation of The Turn of the Screw can never be denied since … the governess is psychopathic. However, the traditional ghost story view did not dry up, and, as David Kirby notes in the foreword of Peter G. Beidler's book, Ghosts, Demons, and Henry James: The Turn of the Screw at the Turn of the Century, "the battle has been so even over the years that it looked as though neither side would prevail unless new evidence were gathered. However, as Robert L. Gale notes in his entry on James for The Dictionary of Literary Biography, "the critical battle is still raging, and it is likely to do so indefinitely, since James seems consciously to have salted his text with veins leading in different directions. Poquette Poquette holds a bachelor's degree in English and specializes in writing about literature. In the following essay, Poquette discusses how the absent employer sets off a chain reaction that triggers the governess's hallucinations in James's novel. It is very difficult to make an argument about most aspects of The Turn of the Screw without first announcing whether one belongs to the group that views the tale as a ghost story or to the group that feels the governess's ghosts are really hallucinations. This essay will take the latter view as a starting point and discuss the reasons behind the governess's hallucinations. It is her master's curiously absent status, coupled with the governess's unrequited love for him, that drives the young woman to her hallucinations. When the governess applies for the job at Bly, her employer tells her that there is one binding condition that no other woman has been able to meet: "she should never trouble him—but never, never: neither appeal nor complain nor write about anything. As Douglas notes in his introduction to the tale, when the governess first meets the master, she notes that he is "a gentleman, a bachelor in the prime of life, such a figure as had never risen, save in a dream or an old novel, before a fluttered, anxious girl out of a Hampshire vicarage. This feeling is compounded, first of all, by the fact that Bly is her first assignment: "She was young, untried, nervous. She starts to congratulate herself immensely: "What I was doing was what he had earnestly hoped … and that I could, after all, do it proved even a greater joy than I expected. It is telling that, in this frame of mind, she starts to have a romantic daydream, "a charming story suddenly to meet someone. The governess's further description identifies this "someone" as a person who "would stand before me and smile and approve. I didn't ask more than that—I only asked that he should know. Goddard notes in Nineteenth-Century Fiction, the absence of the master is having a very real effect on the governess's psyche. Says Goddard, when "a young woman, falls in love and circumstances forbid the normal growth and confession of the passion, the emotion, dammed up, overflows in a psychical experience, a daydream. Although James was American-born, he was an Englishman by preference, and many of his stories, including The Turn of the Screw, take place in England. Gilbert and published by Oxford University Press This massive anthology includes forty-two stories, written between and , from such literary greats as Walter Scott , Bram Stoker , Rudyard Kipling , and Edith Wharton. Together, the three ghosts warm the frigid heart of Scrooge, who realizes the error of his miserly ways. A current version of the short novel was printed in and is available from Bantam Classics. Voices of Madness, —, edited by Allan Ingram, collects four texts written in Britain in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. All four authors—one woman, three men—were regarded as insane, and their narratives tell of their experiences, including their treatment by others. The book was published by Sutton Publishing in The story is available in a edition from Penguin USA. Like The Turn of the Screw, which was written a year later, James's What Maisie Knew fell into the part of his career when he was experimenting with new writing techniques. In the case of the latter novel, James also creates a sense of ambiguity. In this case, the confusion comes from the thoughts of Maisie Farange, an adolescent girl who witnesses her parents getting divorced and remarrying, and slowly comes to understand the greater moral issues involved in all of these relationships. The book is available in a edition from Oxford University Press. One of the undisputed masters of the supernatural was Edgar Allan Poe , whose chilling tales have delighted readers for ages. However, the daydream that appears before the woman on the tower is not the one she expects—"the man who met my eyes was not the person I had precipitately supposed. But it is the deeper, subconscious mind, freshly affected from all of her thoughts about how she wants to prove herself to the master, that precipitates the "ghostly" vision. In her mind, the governess is creating a challenge for herself, something that is greater than merely following the master's orders and something that will perhaps yield a greater reward, once the master sees how she has been victorious. The governess does not realize this, of course, and attributes the vision to the dead ghost of Peter Quint, once she has spoken with Mrs. Grose and gotten this idea in her head. Grose has already planted other ideas in the governess's head, prior even to the time when the governess sees her first hallucination. Shortly after the governess arrives, she inquires after her predecessor, and Mrs. Grose tells her that "She was also young and pretty—almost as young and pretty, Miss, even as you. Grose slips and mentions a mysterious "he," which the governess notes but then forgets. More important, however, is her subconscious mind, which is recording that fact and adding it to the other strange things it has noticed at Bly—the cryptic death of her predecessor, the sounds she hears at night, the fact that Miles's headmaster has dismissed him. Although she does not think about these things consciously at first, all of these first impressions, coupled with her desire to appear a hero to her employer, help her subconscious to create a suitable challenge. Once the governess's vision has gotten out of hand and she has whipped everyone into a frenzy, Mrs. Grose suggests contacting their master, an idea that would undercut everything that the governess is trying to accomplish at Bly. She thinks about her master's reaction: "his derision, his amusement, his contempt for the break-down of my resignation at being left alone and for the fine machinery I had set in motion to attract his attention to my slighted charms. In fact, she is so protective of her vision, and of her reputation with her master, that she threatens Mrs. Grose not to send for the master behind her back: "I would leave, on the spot, both him and you. The young woman's tendency for nervousness has already been noted. But she herself indicates that she might be drawn toward something more, under certain circumstances. At one point, while waiting in "stifled suspense" to see the ghosts again, she remarks that if this tense state were to continue for too long, it could turn "to something like madness. The second case has already been addressed, but the story gives indication that the first may be true. When the children start prying into the governess's background, she notes that they try to dig out the "many particulars of the eccentric nature of my father. Goddard is much more certain of the father's condition. He says that she is "the daughter of a country parson, who, from his daughter's one allusion to him in her story, is of a psychically unbalanced nature; he may, indeed, even have been insane. In any case, as the story goes on, the governess does start to appear a little crazy. She imagines that the children—under the influence of the ghosts—are plotting against her: "It was not … my mere infernal imagination … they were aware of my predicament. Regardless of what the children think, they suffer as a result of the governess's delusions. She watches them constantly, and on certain occasions, seems ready to give in to a mad rage, as when she thinks Flora is keeping something from her: "At that moment, in the state of my nerves, I absolutely believed she lied. The hint of violence is soon made real, when she almost succumbs to one of the visions, which "tempted me with such singular intensity that, to withstand it, I must have gripped my little girl with a spasm that, wonderfully, she submitted to without a cry or a sign of fright. Edel notes that the governess is reading "sinister meanings into everything around her" and suggests that it is the governess's "psychological harassment that in the end leads to Flora's hysteria and Miles's death. The governess gets her chance near the end of the novel, when she sees the ghost of Miss Jessel while she is standing with Mrs. Grose and Flora. The governess is happy that somebody else will be able to testify as to the ghosts' existence: "She was there, and I was justified; she was there, and I was neither cruel nor mad. Grose sees nothing, and as this essay has shown, the governess is cruel and likely mad. She has been cruel to the children with her psychological torture, driving one into hysteria and one into the grave, and she is certainly displaying the signs of one who is mentally deranged. Perhaps when the ghost of Peter Quint disappears at the end of the story, her subconscious mind has declared herself a winner and so banished that particular illusion. She certainly claims triumph for herself, with her exclamations to Miles—"I have you … but he has lost you for ever! Source: Ryan D. Few critical theories about literary works have engendered as much controversy as Edmund Wilson 's thesis in "The Ambiguity of Henry James" that in The Turn of the Screw "the ghosts are not real ghosts but hallucinations of the governess," who "is a neurotic case of sex repression" Homage …. Wilson never abandoned his Freudian hypothesis, in spite of sharp rebuke from many Jamesian scholars. Dorothea Krook, for example, speaks of "his misguided Freudianism" and accuses him of "arriving at conclusions which are no longer even perverse but merely fatuous. But the Freudians are still active. A Freudian reading alone, however, which shows that Miles is as much a sexually precocious young man as he is a ten-year-old boy, results in ambiguity. This ambiguity can be resolved only if the innocence of the two innocents, Miles and the governess, is recognized. Both are inexperienced characters who blunder at one another throughout the novel, especially in chapter The theory that the governess is sexually repressed is well founded: she is the daughter of a country clergyman, suggesting limited informal contact with the opposite sex; she is infatuated with her handsome employer, whom she never sees after their single interview; and she states, immediately before her first sighting of Peter Quint, that "it would be as charming as a charming story suddenly to meet some one"—a man, presumably. The Freudian innuendoes, whether intentionally or sub-liminally inserted, are evident: the figure of Peter Quint on the tower a phallic symbol , the lake the female sex organ in front of Miss Jessel, and the piece of wood that Flora intently maneuvers into the hole of another piece of wood Hommage …. And as Robert Liddell observes, even the words turn and screw in the title of the work are suggestive. Many factors contribute to the governess's anxious state of mind, especially the letter dismissing Miles, the presence of Miss Jessel and the children, and the governess's mixed feelings toward the handsome man who employed her and thus gave her the responsibilities of Bly. After a conversation with Miles chapter 14 , during which he insists that "a fellow … [cannot] be with a lady always," the governess feels that she must learn why the boy has been dismissed from school and, furthermore, must inform his uncle, even if that means her employer must come to Bly. As she collapses on the staircase chapter 15 , the governess becomes aware of the presence of Miss Jessel and calls her predecessor a "terrible miserable woman"; but when she talks with Mrs. Grose afterward chapter 16 , she asserts that Miss Jessel told her that "she suffers the torments … of the lost. Of the damned" and therefore has come to take Flora "to share them. Grose speak of the letter from school, the governess blames the children's uncle for all that has happened because he left the two in the care of Miss Jessel and Peter Quint. Because Miles is "so clever and beautiful and perfect," the governess believes that he must have been dismissed "for wickedness. She explains that "under [her] endless obsession," she listened "a minute" at Miles's door for "some betrayal of his not being at rest. When she asks him what he was thinking of as he lay awake, Miles says, "What in the world, my dear, but you? Miles replies, "Why the way you bring me up. And all the rest! The governess may well be one of James's "thwarted Anglo-Saxon spinster[s]" Homage … , but she is also sexually excited by the innuendoes of this exchange, as is Miles. The young boy whose hand she holds is sexually aroused by this attractive young woman. Undoubtedly influenced by Peter Quint and by his uncle, Miles is part boy, part man. He has the sexual urge, but not the confidence which comes with maturity. He can only try to express himself through his enigmatic responses. Despite the governess's momentary inability to answer Miles, she does reveal her thoughts: "I felt as I held his hand and our eyes continued to meet that my silence had all the air of admitting his charge and that nothing in the whole world of reality was perhaps at that moment so fabulous as our actual relation. She tells Miles that he can return to school, although it must be "another, a better" school. As she reminds him that he has never told her anything about the school or his companions there, her imagination creates an image that is, at least temporarily, emotionally acceptable to her: "His clear listening face, framed in its smooth whiteness, made him for the minute as appealing as some wistful patient in a children's hospital; and I would have given, as the resemblance came to me, all I possessed on earth really to be the nurse or the sister of charity who might have helped to cure him. How, for example, can her next remark, "I thought you wanted to go on as you are," be interpreted? At one level it can refer to his remaining in the country she responds to his desire to "get away" by asking if he is "tired of Bly" , where he is constantly her close companion. Or this can be seen as a reference to his virginity. The basic problem of The Turn of the Screw is the narrative point of view. To distance the story, James employed the time-worn device of the old manuscript to authenticate the events at Bly. The children's secret meetings with the killer suggest a half-willing participation in the suspect terms of the destructive relationship In Durrenmatt the case is simpler than in James, but there is still evidence of a child's subtle sensing of illegitimacy in the enterprise and yet having a virtual unbreakable commitment to it Even more interestingly, however, Heilman discerns in both novellas the pathos of a child's only partial consent to the threatening evil. Here the comparisons are striking. Both Flora and Annemarie are, as far as the overt evidence goes, most unreservedly attracted to their secret associates; in them we detect no sense of duplicity in the situation, no counter-impulse to hesitate, doubt, or withdraw. But in Miles the governess detects signs of a despair that indicates unusual awareness of the nature of his engagement; and she feels in him some willingness to come toward her as a helper, some incompleteness in the fidelity to Quint, some faint symptom of resistance to the lure of the demonic. In The Pledge the killer has extraordinary success in getting the cooperation of his victims, in securing their maintenance of a secrecy without which the preparatory rendezvous could not continue. As with Miles, the impulse to independent action, the minimal blind man's feeling toward safety, falls far short of establishing protection against the danger behind the proffered and desired sweets. But what is important for us is that two writers, in dealing with such a situation, distinguish between the child who succumbs wholly to the lure of the demonic and the one whose yielding to temptation is ever so subtly qualified by the faint stirring of an imperfect desire to make possible a rescue. In making the distinction James further strengthens our sense that he is observing human responses in actual beings in an objective situation Heilman finds that "Duerrenmatt and James are even alike in their imagination of the evil enemy. Heilman also points out striking similarities between the final appearance of Jessel at the lake and the failure of the killer to appear with Annemarie in the dale before the eyes of Matthai and his colleagues. There is, first of all, the general resemblance in symbolic decor: both authors have chosen a scene where fertility images are dominant and have introduced into it images of death or decay--the demonic intrusion into the garden. Even more importantly, however, according to Heilman, in each case the main character's vision of evil appears to be disconfirmed, even though the vision is true. The governess is sure that Flora has been consorting with the ghost of Miss Jessel; Flora is found exactly where the governess conjectures, and then, to complete the victory, Miss Jessel materializes across the pond. But Mrs. Grose cannot see the apparition, comforts the child, and doubts the governess almost to the point of turning entirely against her. Finally, the questionable morality of Matthai's plan to use an innocent child as "bait," according to Heilman, is similar to the failings of the governess-- particularly, her "go-it-alone hubris which, we cannot doubt, reduces the effectiveness that added help might have given her battle. The relation to James is that both writers sense the subtle interplay of devotion and egotism in the rescuer of others; many things go under in the determination to master the problem The governess faces the fact that she may be mad.. But the point here is that similarities in the authors' management of the savior characters strengthen our sense that a self-consciously heroic quality, a certain excessiveness, a vehement, at times frantic style, self-will, and tension in the governess are signs not of disorder but of a normal, imperfect human being's response to the pressure of enormous difficulties The parallels which Heilman points out are certainly striking. They suggest, however, an interpretation considerably less laudatory of the governess than Heilman's famous article, and this point Heilman does not make. Also, Heilman does not consider a highly plausible alternative explanation of the similarities he cites--namely, that Durrenmatt used The Turn of The Screw as a source in the construction of his novella. If he did so, he could certainly have changed the material considerably in the process of incorporating it into his own creation. The fact, therefore, that Durrenmatt's detective pursues a truly existing killer would not prove that James's heroine pursues objectively existing ghosts. It would be reasonable to assume that a writer as erudite as Durrenmatt had read The Turn of the Screw. The possibility of such deliberate conscious or unconscious incorporation is, accordingly, very real. Feuerlicht thus appears to be presenting not a source study, but rather a consideration of the kind of "new evidence" which Heilman offered in his comparison of James and Durrenmatt1. Feuerlicht, however, confuses the issue in two ways. First, he states that Such an allusion by James in a critical preface would seem to imply that he used the work as a source. This "curious similarity of names" would seem to suggest that the Shakespearean play was used as a source. If the novelist's use of sources can explain why the novel and the play contain similar erotic material, why can this explanation not account for corresponding similarities between the novella and Goethe's ballad? There is, of course, another possible explanation which Feuerlicht does not consider--namely, that both Goethe and James used A Midsummer Night's Dream as a source. That possibility casts serious doubt on interpretations of either work which are based on similarities to the other work. It is possible that both James and Goethe used the same material but in very different ways. Most of the similarities Feuerlicht cites appear too general to shed light on the interpretation of either work--in this respect his essay is inferior to Heilman's. We are told, for example, that the story and the ballad At the end, the child dies mysteriously in the arms of his protector We are also reminded of the "sudden and mysterious death" of a child in each work and of the "abrupt ending" of each The child, aged six or seven, had eyebrows six inches long. Goethe was likewise inspired to his ballad by the beautiful body of a six-year-old boy, the little Fritz Stein, whom he admired and whom he took out one evening on a horseback ride Feuerlicht's most important point--that the supernatural entitles are real--is assumed in regard to both stories but proven in regard to neither. Feuerlicht's most cogent argument is overstated and far from conclusive: The death of a healthy child from mere mental shock seems Feuerlicht does, however, point to an interesting parallel in the critical reception of the two works: The Turn of the Screw has achieved its great popularity as a ghost story. Yet some critics do not believe in James' ghosts, and explain them as hallucinations of the frustrated and perverted governess, who alleges seeing those ghosts. Comparison of the critical reception of two or more literary works can lead to valuable insights about the works themselves, about a particular period of literature or about literature in general, about the literary criticism of certain periods, or about the broader cultural milieu from which such criticism proceeds. Feuerlicht, however, unfortunately does not pursue any of these lines of development. Booth Wayne C. Booth adopts a more fruitful approach in The Rhetoric of Fiction. Here he takes note of other works to explain not The Turn of the Screw itself but much of the criticism of the novella. Booth--like Jones, Hoffmann, and others--sees the governess as generally reliable, although not perfect: I may as well begin by admitting--reluctantly since all of the glamour is on the other side--that for me James's conscious intentions are fully realized: the ghosts are real, the governess sees what she says she sees. What she sees disturbs her--as well it might. She is naive, innocent, human, decidedly inconscient about a lot of things she ought to be aware of; she is no paragon of wisdom or even of integrity. But she behaves about as well as we could reasonably expect of ourselves under similarly intolerable circumstances That so many critics have thought otherwise Booth takes as an example of a frequent error in twentieth-century criticism--namely, the fact that "the hunt for hidden symbols and ironies has been carried too far. These critical excesses are inevitable, Booth contends, because of the nature of so much twentieth century fiction--e. Moreover, these authors have influenced our reading processes to such an extent that such continuing critical excesses are inevitable. Once on this road we cannot turn back; we cannot pretend that things are as simple as they once seemed. We are not stopped by the most explicit rhetoric. When Cervantes labors to place his woeful knight as a blind though lovable fool, we simply ignore him: the Don is really a Christian Saint, a great Ironic Hero whom Cervantes himself does not fully understand Other critics, of course--most notably, Heilman in his , , and essays--have attempted to explain what they perceived as widespread biases on the part of critics. However, if we compare Booth's approach to that of Heilman and others, we discern an important difference which we might interpret as an accentuation of the trend toward viewing literature as a self-referential world. For Booth does not attribute these biases to philosophical or cultural preconceptions but to the specifically literary conventions to which these critics have been exposed. For this work of literary criticism--really a hybrid mixture of fiction and criticism of fiction--is itself a novella the structure of which mirrors the structure of the novella it critiques. For West's critical speculations are presented in the form of a manuscript written by an anonymous critic to an "old friend and classmate, Baldy Twitchell" vii and edited by the anonymous critic's "discoverer and annotator who signs himself merely by initials-- H. This critic's work and the comments made by H. Moreover, the anonymous critic's work is a narrative of his sequential speculations throughout a Christmas eve night and early Christmas morning in an old country house. Furthermore, H. Moreover, the critic toward the end of the work claims to encounter the governess. Whether this is an hallucination, a dream, a tongue-in-cheek account, or a use of figurative language is not entirely clear. It follows other events faithfully recorded by the critic in which events first considered supernatural were shown to have natural causes. Consider this one amusing and representative example I don't know how long I meditated, but the storm broke into my reverie with new violence--sparks and ashes spewed from the fireplace as before, the lamp alternately flickered and flared, and a big dead branch rapped with such force on the windowpane that, when another icy gust tore through the house, blowing my papers all everywhere and waking the cat from its curled-up on the hearth, I wondered if the pane had been broken. But the window was just as tight as the governess found it at the end of Chapter The cat stretched and yawned--quite indifferent to any horrid demonic presence that might have come in with the wind. I made at once for the back of the house, and the cat went right along--sensing the chance to take advantage of someone's going to the kitchen. I was hungry myself. I shut the wide-open door and bolted it. Then I was led through what seemed to be seventeen cats until I had lit a candle and crossed over to the icebox Thus, some of the experiences of the anonymous critic parallel those of the anonymous governess. His cogitations as to the meaning of the literary work mirror her speculations about the meaning of the "story" at Bly. His manuscript is kept in a locked drawer by H. Our perception of the critic's account is qualified by the annotations of H. In chapter 2 of this study I discussed Heywood Broun's essay as a hybrid literary form partaking of the qualities of both literary criticism and fiction. Broun's essay purportedly detailed his own psychological reactions to the novella but in so overstated a manner that his essay must be considered at least partly fiction. West's work, of course,--with the relationships among its narrators mirroring the relationships among James's narrators--must be considered infinitely more sophisticated than Broun's. Furthermore, because of this complex mirroring of literary structures, West's work more than Broun's can be seen as a product of structuralism--particularly of the structuralist view of literature as a self-referential universe. Broun's work, on the other hand, can more realistically be seen as a product of phenomenology. He is driven to a semi-fictional expression not to mirror literary structures but to experience and make us experience the particular brand of terror he feels James intended to convey. Solomon Erich Solomon's "The Return of the Screw" is a hybrid of a different form, a work not of fiction but of satire--specifically a spoof on the criticism of the story, "the classic controversies" and "the many refinements of Freudian, mythic, or pastoral readings James' story has received" To critique the critics, of course, is itself an act of criticism of the story. By parodying the critics Solomon at least implies something about the novella--that it ought to be read more simply and straightforwardly, perhaps--although Solomon does not tell us straightforwardly what he considers a straightforward reading to be. Thus, in the act of mocking others, he commits the very sin which has aroused his scorn; and his criticism mirrors the criticism he writes about in a manner faintly analogous to the way in which West's novella mirrors the novella it critiques. On the night of August 11th, she was visited by a nightmare in which her beloved daughter was set upon by a Korean assailant. Frantic to fend him off, Mrs. Cogdon went after him with a six-pound axe, in the process bludgeoning her daughter to death. But there was no assailant—other than Mrs. Cogdon—in the home. What initially seems a pastoral idyll soon turns harrowing, as she becomes convinced that the children are consorting with a pair of malevolent spirits. These are the ghosts of former employees at Bly: a valet and a previous governess. In life, scandalously, the two of them had been discharged as illicit lovers, and their spectral visitations with the children hint at Satanism and possible sexual abuse. Clearly, the ten-year-old Miles and the eight-year-old Flora must be protected. But the governess, in her effort to shield her wards from hazards that are possibly immaterial, winds up traumatizing the little girl and killing the little boy. The reader in effect becomes a jury of one. The language is extremely dense—late James in all his rococo rhetorical finery—and though the book runs only some hundred pages, it casts a spell not merely shadowy but extensive: it feels longer than it is. The idea of innocence was place on a child at an early age. Books that were publish in the Era of Victorian that focus on youth of a child. Children are supposed to enjoy life and being joy into it. They were the pictures of innocence but Miles and Flora had painted themselves differently. The intensely complex and intricate if not confusing! Or is it? Perhaps one ignore the idea because of many unclear allusions to discrepancies. The two main questions are, are the ghosts in the story real, or are they just figments of the narrator's imagination? When I read though the essays of criticism, I took a stand on one particular argument. I took a stand that supports the argument that the ghosts are real. What alternative interpretations does it lend itself to? Making a definite, educated decision on the actual truth considering the countless inquiries that develop while reading this story proves more difficult than winning a presidential election. For James, the novel corresponds to the ultimate art form and it should have a position the community as such. The theory presented by Henry James contains a number of principles the author introduced in his own stories. In the following paragraphs we will revise some of the main ideas presented by James in The Art of Fiction, and how these reflect on his novel The Turn of the Screw. Instead of directly discussing whether the ghosts are real or not, this essay will focus on the reliability of the governess, the narrator of the story. After making a close examination of her state of mind while she is at Bly, readers of The Turn of the Screw will have many more clues to ponder again and to decide to what extent the governess can be believed. With compulsively obsessive actions, irrational assumptions, and demented hallucinations, the governess perceived ghosts bearing evil intentions were attempting to corrupt and destroy the children she had taken the role of care for. In reality, the governess herself brought tragedy Is Henry James' The turn of the Screw a traditional ghost story? Ghost stories are found way back in history, some dating back to the Victorian times.
The also The numerous ambiguities of language pronoun references, for example, which are unclear to demonstrate that the governess may be possessed throughout the story, may become possessed literature review of steel fiber the end as In essay of zora neale hurston essay becomes dispossessed, and may be responsible for killing Miles.
West also directs our attention to "Miles's white face, the dew of sweat on his forehead Toward the end of the encounter, West points literary, the governess tell us more about what the write part of my screw for me been saying than anchor what she has been doing.
After making a close examination of her state of mind while she is at Bly, readers of The Turn of the Screw will have many more clues to ponder again and to decide to what extent the governess can be believed. With compulsively obsessive actions, irrational assumptions, and demented hallucinations, the governess perceived ghosts bearing evil intentions were attempting to corrupt and destroy the children she had taken the role of care for. In reality, the governess herself brought tragedy Is Henry James' The turn of the Screw a traditional ghost story? Ghost stories are found way back in history, some dating back to the Victorian times. The Victorians were known to be greatly interested in ghosts and the supernatural and showed this fascination through telling ghost stories. Harriet Waters Preston described it as, "a sheer mortal horror, like the evil dream of a man under the spell of a deadly drug"1, and Gertrude Atherton said, "[it] is the most horrifying ghost story ever written! The vividly bleak backdrop for The Turn of the Screw houses a handful of servants, two orphaned children, and ghosts who fade in and out of view. But there are others present who are less obtrusive yet just as influential as Peter Quint and Miss Jessel. The Turn of the Screw by Henry James is usually read as a ghost story in which the central character, the governess, tries to save the souls of two children possessed by evil. However, the short-story can be also analyzed from many different perspectives, as we come upon a number of hints that lead to various understanding of certain scenes. The ambiguity and uncertainty within this text causes the readers to come up with their own theories as to what the text really means. The ghost story perspective only adds to the infuriating vagueness. The title itself is about all of the twists within this story and basically foreshadows the confusion that the text will cause. The story is ambiguous; we never fully know whether the apparitions exist or not and we are left with many more questions than answers. The Governess is left in charge of two young children, Miles and Flora, of whom she later becomes obsessed with, describing them as 'angelic'. Shortly after her arrival, she begins to suffer from insomnia and fancies that she sees ghosts roaming about the grounds. James is a master story-teller and, at times, the complexities of the story make it difficult to follow. This literary device sets the mood of the story for the reader. Henry James uses tone effectively in the novel, The Turn of the Screw. The mood of the story shifts three times as the story progresses. Ugonna okpalaoka the essay magazine. 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She has been dead these twenty years. This passage tells the reader that Douglass has in his possession a physical copy of the story, and that it was written by another person. By including the extensive physical description of the manuscript, James effectively establishes Douglass as a credible source. Though the novel begins in first person, and the story that Douglass reads is told through first person, readers of The Turn of the Screw encounter several layers between themselves and the material. It is almost as though the reader is placed in a fifth-person perspective. This, again, creates credibility issues. From here the novel is narrated in first-person by the Governess, a simpler format to read. Upon meeting Flora, the young girl that would be in her care, the Governess is taken on a tour of the house in which she will be staying. The first images present a glorified portrait of the estate, while the second conveys a harsh reality. This scene warns readers that the Governess seems to slip seamlessly between fantasy and reality. The Governess waits until Chapter VI, which presumably occurs a couple weeks later, to disclose her encounter to the only other adult on the estate, Mrs. The discussion between these two women is strange to say the least. In this discussion, the Governess provides many more details about the man than she did in her account of the actual encounter. The lone detail of a hatless man remains constant, but the Governess seems to be taking her cues from the questions that Mrs. Grose asks. Instead, he portrays James simply as an artful entertainer rejoicing in the creation of a new form of entertainment: a ghost story which "has led us along first one trail and then another, until finally we have doubled back upon ourselves and are just where we started" Indeed, Rubin seems uninterested in opening any philosophical, theological, or psychological doors. He seems to accept Poe's assumptions that the purpose of art is entertainment and the critical task is to point out in what way and how well the purpose has been achieved. His article ends with praise for the work as eminently successful entertainment: Carefully, stroke by stroke, he built his riddle, spread his hints, told and denied, held us. The evening's entertainment he prepared for those fortunate readers of Collier's magazine sixty-five years ago remains as fresh as on the day it was written. Rubin adopts a similar approach to the novella in The Teller and the Tale, asserting that James with consummate artistry has led us off in one direction after another, with the trial constantly doubling back on itself, so that we are confronted finally with the personality of the author Rubin's emphasis in this study is on the construction of various narrative voices and their relationship to their authors. His point here is that James "schemed to present a conjuncture" by constructing a narrator who "did not know how to conceal what she had to conceal if we were to believe her" Donald P. Costello, too, declined to take sides in the dispute between apparitionists and non-apparitionists--maintaining that such debates arise from an irreducible ambiguity which the author has deliberately embedded in the very structure of the story in order to produce in the reader a dual effect of mystification and terror. Costello's purpose, accordingly, is not to affirm one side or the other of that controversy because such interpretations, in their single-minded insistence upon the completeness of their reading of the story, have robbed it of a whole dimension Any interpretation that takes away the ghosts weakens the story's ability to horrify; any interpretation that takes away the reader's uncertainty weakens the story's ability to mystify Costello does not attempt to derive any philosophical or other themes from this irreducible ambiguity. His purpose, rather, is to demonstrate "that a close examination of the structure of The Turn of the Screw will indicate that James so built his tale as to make it both to puzzle the reader and to horrify him In other words, Costello is interested in narrative structure rather than meaning. Costello contends that "this double effect" is engendered by the juxtaposition of factual "representations"--including accurate statements of what the governess sees--and dubious "interpretations" of these data--statements, for example, that her visions are supernatural rather than hallucinatory. Accordingly, "scenes in which the governess represents the action usually result in horror; scenes in which the governess interprets the action usually result in mystification" Most helpfully, Costello provides a detailed chart consisting of "a scene-by-scene breakdown of the entire book according to representational and interpretive scenes" Costello provides another chart to show how the various incidents fit together in an interrelated and suspenseful pattern. This chart divides the story into "thirteen In each sequence an incident and its interpretation are preceded by a "foretelling" or introduction by the governess and followed by some plan of action which connects the sequence to later events in the story. The first sequence, for example, concerns the governess's receipt of the letter stating that Miles will not be allowed to return to his boarding school. The "foretelling" is as follows: "The first day had been, on the whole, as I have expressed, reassuring, but I was to see it wind up to a change of note. This fourfold structure obtains throughout the first twelve "sequences"; in the thirteenth sequence, however, the emotional confrontation between Miles and the governess is followed, not by interpretation, but by the final incident--the death of Miles. The forward thrust is over, and the story ends We find this same emphasis on technique rather than content in Muriel West's brilliant book-length source study, A Stormy Night with The Turn of the Screw. In this work West's fictional narrator discovers in the novella a bewildering plethora of sources and other "literary influences. Similarly, the narrator calls attention to various biblical motifs but, upon closer examination, realizes that their inclusion in the story raises questions without providing answers. There are, for instance, elements suggestive of the First Book of Samuel stories about David and Saul and the Witch of Endor recall that the governess compares Miles playing the piano for her to "David playing for Saul" which seem to be deliberately inserted into the novella but which engender nagging, unformulated notions There couldn't be any sensible connection between his playing the part of David, for David was old and stricken in years before he slept with his fathers and was buried in the City of David These silences and time distortions, however, also suggest as possible sources the pathological experiences recorded in psychological and psychiatric writings such as Freud and Breuer's Studies in Hysteria, Braid's Neurypnology, or the Rationale of Nervous Sleep, and, of course, William James's Principles of Psychology Finally, to add to the confusion, the "scientific" sources include not only material concerning psychopathology but also the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research and, indeed, "all the thinking of the Gay Nineties on unexplained phenomena Furthermore, in addition to "scientific" material concerning the supernatural, the narrator finds traces of "elves and fairies from folklore and Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream" After compiling this large combination of "sources" and "influences," the narrator at last concludes that no thematic pattern can be conveyed--that, instead--we have in The Turn of the Screw a dream--a nightmare perhaps--the reality of which exceeds what psychoanalysts would call its manifest content--although West does not use that terminology: if The Turn of the Screw is I was glad not to have to go on puzzling about ambiguities and inconsistencies that in a dream world would make good enough sense The dream, however, is not only the reader's dream but also the governess's dream--and here, in her discussion of James's technique, West adds a novel twist--"another turn," if you will. For at least some of the literary influences--the Gothic effects, in particular, are referred to in the governess's discussion of her reading she mentions The Mystery of Udolpho, for example. The prologue, then, becomes important in understanding how the trick was played. James had it all thought out ahead of time. His intermediate narrator, Douglas, plants some of the unexciting truths that the novel-devouring governess ignores, or develops to suit her own taste-her taste for sensational novels where the most innocent-seeming people turn out to be villains of the deepest dye--much as according to some people all cats are black at heart John J. Enck, too, considers the novella's ambiguities to be both irreducible and inherent in its structure. He, therefore, urges us to "read The Turn of the Screw not to discern whether the governess either tells objectively what happens or occasionally deceives herself but, rather simultaneously for both likelihoods" Enck agrees with Edel's contention in The Psychological Novel that The Turn of the Screw must be seen as a representative of a new genre in which ambiguity is deliberately engendered. He is thus, like Edel, an historical genre critic. Indeed, the failure to recognize to what genre The Turn of the Screw belongs is, in Enck's view, responsible for the long debate between apparitionists and non-apparitionists. Enck, however, takes Edel's point a step further--seeing the novella not only as a representative of a new literary genre but as "part of an international revolt in aesthetics" which included musicians, painters, and sculptors as well as writers. Accordingly, Enck compares the tale's ambiguity to that found in the opera Ariadne auf Naxos and, in discussing the ambiguities of The Turn of the Screw, employs similes from both music and sculpture. In discussing the interaction between the children and the governess he suggests that one must catch Miles's and Flora's accents as a kind of chorus and then the woman's perhaps malevolent keening which floats over them. The effect, no more than in atonal compositions which likewise found congenial the tempo at the turn of the century, becomes not a cacophony but releases new harmonics Enck does not, like West in A Stormy Night, pinpoint numerous literary sources for the novella. Concomitantly, the experimenters, shunning earlier romantics' empty phantasies, teasingly drew upon cliches from literature, experience, or legends, or society but inverted or caricatured them To offer these constructs in full rigor artists stressed not the subject but the media in which they worked: paint, notes, marble, or words Finally, the total impact, balanced by the uncommitted ambiguities, sought not to reassure but to disturb Accordingly, Enck would be neither surprised nor disturbed by the bewildering variety of "sources"--from the bible to Gothic novels to the writings of psychoanalysts and parapsychologists--which West's fictional narrator divined in The Turn of the Screw and by the failure of these diverse elements to fit together in a coherent thematic pattern. Such "futile squabbles" over themes, says Enck, arise from unhistorical readings which assume "that twentieth-century artists just perpetuate, often less effectually, outlooks inherited from the nineteenth" We see here also, as in West's book, the influence of one of the central ideas of structuralism--that the world of literature is self-contained and self-referential. In his discussion of James's technique, Enck isolates in the narrative "four strata," a distinction to Costello's representation-interpretation dichotomy. Enck lists these levels as follows: those which admit little room for doubt, such as setting, season, external traits of character, and the background; those which the governess perhaps misinterprets, such as her own feelings or the tone in dialogue; those highly suspect, such as the extent of Miles's and Flora's depravity; those which could be downright wrong, such as the ghosts While investigating these four levels Thus, as so many other critics--among them, Rubin and Trachtenberg-have pointed out, a great part of the story's effect lies in reversals of the reader's expectations. Enck summarizes the governess's presentation in this way: Her position initially accommodates all the trite aspects which usually enhance such a figure: a touch of Cinderella, an enchanted house, charming security in the classroom, and a charitable loyalty to a master. By a few breathtaking strokes James neatly undercuts the cliches and so invests them with a sinister power While she repeatedly stresses her frantic grimaces, her firmness with Mrs. Grose, her courageous independence, and her constant fidelity something less or more than she claims to reveal about herself emerges between the lines The following are representative examples of the "slight but indicative details" which infect the governess's narrative with an "evasive duplicity" I had often admired it and I knew my way about in it'--not a privately edifying practice. Enck's criticism is expressly technical rather than thematic. In his view the work " Perhaps paradoxically, however, Enck seems to find a philosophical lesson precisely in the story's refusal to yield a definitive reading--i. Nevertheless, as with most of James's later books, the closer the reading, the more one's sensitivity increases about the difficulty of all decisions: how very tenuous one's estimate of others--and one's self--must in civilized fairness be. One locks back at Bly and its unconventional inhabitants repeatedly because one cannot, dare not, make the final pronouncement. Whatever anxiety such hesitancy causes disappears in part because of the wholeness which art alone provides; one learns to suspend judgment Criticism Reflecting the Structuralist View of Literature as an Isolated and Self-Referential World A: Heilman, Enck, we have seen, considered other artistic works--such as the opera Ariadne auf Naxos--without constructing a source study. He did not argue that James consciously or unconsciously drew upon these particular works in constructing the novella but rather that the work can be understood as the product of a certain cultural milieu which can be known through its various artistic productions and that the elements shared by many artistic works of a period can shed considerable light on any particular work. We have suggested that one origin of this approach is the structuralist view of the world of art--and, particularly, the world of literature--as isolated and self-referential. Whatever its cause, this type of criticism becomes increasingly prevalent in the 60's and 70's. We will consider only a few outstanding examples. In Heilman reiterated the arguments he had previously made against the non-apparitionist position, accusing Wilson and other Freudians of "an ignoring of such objective facts as Miles's wrongdoing at school and the governess' obvious good health after the events of the story," as well as a certain disingenuousness in that "the new knowledge that sexuality influences many nonsexual activities is applied eagerly to the governess but not at all to Miles and Flora" Because of the failure of these and similar arguments to settle the critical controversy, Heilman suggests the "presentation of new evidence. There is a kind of literary evidence that is worth exploring--the evidence of literary works that are concerned with similar themes and that present a comparable sense of human reality. A kindred literary work may cast a light that will throw into relief certain things that James is doing and strengthen their influence upon the reader's sense of the whole In Duerrenmatt's novel The Pledge a hitherto stolid, cold detective named Matthai--called by his colleagues Matt the Automat--is profoundly affected by the sex murder of a pre-pubescent girl and, particularly, by the devastation of the parents when informed of the crime. He makes a "pledge" to the girl's mother to find the murderer and then becomes possessed by his obsession. Although a peddler who has been previously convicted of molesting a fourteen year old girl confesses to the murder, the evidence against him is inconclusive, and Matthai is convinced the real murderer is still at large. A friend of the deceased reveals that the victim had spoken of meeting a "giant" for some time in a secluded place and had drawn a picture of him. Matthai takes the picture to a psychiatrist and then, on the basis of a psychological profile of the killer and clues from two similar unsolved murders in neighboring cantons, forms a detailed hypothesis as to how the killer will strike again. Having left the police force the authorities are determined to close the case , Matthai sets a trap for the killer by purchasing a gas station on a highway he thinks the man will eventually use and setting as "bait" the daughter of a prostitute he has brought in to live with him. This plan is conceived, of course, without the knowledge of the child or her mother. After months of waiting, Matthai learns from the young girl's teacher that Annemarie has recently been absent from school without his or her mother's knowledge. He finds expensive chocolate in her possession, which she claims, unbelievably, to have received from an unidentified child her own age. Under further questioning, she admits she has been secretly meeting a "wizard" in an isolated dale. Matthai then tells her to continue meeting the "nice wizard"; meanwhile he and some of his former police colleagues secretly trail her and, for over a week, secretly watch her while she sits in the dale singing in apparent anticipation of the "wizard" who never arrives. Out of patience, they finally violently question and even beat the uncommunicative child. The child's mother then arrives and, upon learning Matthai's motive for befriending her and her daughter, denounces him as "swine.
That the governess succumbs to possession, West maintains, is suggested by numerous syntactical ambiguities. I shrieked to my cheap as I tried to how to service depression him against me Does she writer which is which? From this point on her speeches lose a good measure of their earlier composure and clarity Later in the encounter, "the ambiguities become even Spondylolisthesis pain lying down complex - well-nigh indecipherable.
West is at essays to argue that these ambiguities have been deliberately created.
She also cites essays James made about the story, particularly his designation of the novella in a letter to Paul Bourget as "an exercise in the art of not appearing to oneself to The and his turn in the Preface to Volume 12 of the New York Edition essay the governess's "crystalline This, literary, is not West's intention - her aim is only to the an irreducible hero and show how James produced it.
Let it suffice, then, to conclude by saying: Business plan fotografen berlin the anti section of The Turn of the Screw the governess indulges in an exuberant screw of violence that top thesis statement writer for hire gb to the sudden death of the little Miles - or dreams sbi she did Louis D.